death rituals help restless spirits find peace in the philippines
Winds and heavy rains, which hit the islands at speeds of up to 170 miles per hour, killed more than 120 people and buried many victims by mudslides.
36 of themyear-
Old Joey Tudo is a gold miner and a member of Ifugao, a group of the Cordillera mountains of Luzon Island, the main island of the Philippines.
When the typhoon struck Itogon\'s mining town, Tudo and about 80 others hid in two sheds at the Gold gate they called zero. Seventy.
Spent the storm with Tudo was her cousin Jasmin Banawol, Jasmin\'s husband edwin, the pastor of the evangelical Christian church in the mining camp, and their four children, two older
The landslide took place on a steep hill above the mining town of Itogon in the cordra mountains.
After hours of pouring rain, steep slopes above zero
The huge landslide buried bunkhouse and everyone in it, and buried 20 feet deep soil and rooted trees.
When the news of the disaster reached umabentong, Tudo\'s hometown, her more than 20 Ifugao Jin squeezed into two trucks and drove eight on the twisted mountain road.
When they arrived, they began digging into mud hills with bare hands, working hard with hundreds of rescue workers and police. (
See the damage left by Typhoon mankhute. )
They dug for several days, even after the stench of the rotten body became overwhelming.
When the national government ordered them to leave because of health problems, they refused.
\"We can\'t move on unless we see her,\" said potato\'s aunt, Nancy dinilin.
We can\'t believe it\'s true unless we see her body.
Back in umapong, a group of Tudo cousins held a ceremony to merge the Roman Catholic prayer with the Ifugao ceremony.
They circled, slaughtered a pig with ceremony, and prayed that the soul of the potato would help the searcher find her body.
On the seventh day of prayer, Todo spoke to her cousins through a prophet, a woman who acts as a conduit between the living and the dead. (
Warning: The following may upset some readers. )
Tuduo begged her cousin, please find me.
I hang on the pillar;
I\'m missing 1 feet.
My cousin has no head.
I screamed for my mother. I died slowly.
I started praying for our father.
I was taken away before I finished.
The next day, at the site of the landslide, a backhoe operator dug a pink blanket on the soft land belonging to the herdsmen\'s wife Jasmin Banawol and the cousin of the potato
The family dug up her body.
As predicted in the ceremony, she was beheaded by the power of the landslide.
A few days later, they found the body of the potato.
Most of the indigenous people of the Cordillera mountain veins civilian their traditional loincloths and packaging in exchange for jeans, polo wholesale t shirts wholesale and rubber slides, and many convert to Catholic or evangelical Christianity.
But when their loved ones or relatives die, they often turn to rituals handed down by their ancestors.
A week after the disaster, volunteers dug a channel to divert water.
Many people think that effective methods are more important than the origin of these methods, says Nestor Castro, an anthropologist at the University of the Philippines at Diliman.
Different ceremonies meet different needs, including helping mourners cope with their grief, clearing memories that linger in the minds of survivors and rescuers.
Dax Godio, a member of Ibaloy, said this is our psychotherapy. Kalangua tribe
But most importantly, the death ceremony is designed to ensure that the souls of the dead are given the attention and care they need.
Castro explained that in the culture of Cordillera, once you are dead, it is not an end.
You are still part of the community.
You are still a member of the kin group. âx80x9d (
Learn about a culture in which the living share a home with the dead. )
If forgotten or abused, the deceased objects to those who should take care of them.
They pester the children, cause the disease, and commit other pranks.
But if the dead are respected and commemorated, they will protect the living and prevent the tragedy.
Above the site of the Itogon landslide, the state government has set up a center for temporary treatment of victims.
Inside, a staff member destroyed the death certificate within decades.
Anxious relatives sitting in a plastic chair are waiting for news of the fate of their loved ones.
Behind the building is a forensics team from the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI)
An autopsy theater was temporarily set up under the tent and on the grass.
Technicians wearing white hazmat suits, latex gloves and surgical masks performed the death ceremony of their own brand.
The night before, a male victim lay on a metal table 10 days after being buried in the mud.
The technician cleared the body and recorded some of his property: a pile of wet clothes and a 20-
They folded, labeled and stuffed the peso notes in plastic bags.
They covered the body with quicklime to slow down the decomposition and reduce the smell.
For Ifugao, scientific procedures and international health standards are like an abstraction of another belief system that has been imposed on them.
The forensic team urged relatives of the victims to approve the collection of bone and tissue samples for DNA identification.
But the idea of leaving any part of a loved one with the government is disturbing and violates the tradition of Ifugao.
A family became increasingly impatient with the release of the body waiting for relatives, who signed a handwritten waiver stating that they did not allow the government to collect DNA samples due to their cultural beliefs, and will not be responsible for the wrong identification of officials.
The body was released despite objections from medical staff. (
It was found that the DNA test was 100% accurate. )
The kinship between the indigenous Ifugao is very close, especially at the time of the death attack.
After three days of vigil, family and friends carried Alquane Buocan\'s coffin to his final resting place.
NBI\'s forensic officer, Ronald bandernier, said pointedly, as he flipped through the body chart, that it was the body allegedly identified.
I\'m not very comfortable with it, but what can I do?
According to the forensic team, the body is called a car --18-45.
For his family, he was beloved Alquane, only 30 years old when he died in a landslide.
Before dawn, the body of Alquane buocan Temple arrived in his hometown of Uhaj village, nine hours from Itogon.
His brothers lifted his coffin to the shoulder, carried it up the hill, and brought it to a clearing in front of his mother\'s simple wood --and-thatch home.
To thank Alquane for coming home and to inform their ancestors of his death, his family immediately slaughtered a pig.
The proposal was accepted.
At dawn, there was a cloud in the valley. many miners came from there.
Mourners acknowledge their death as a sign from the soul.
The spirit-keeping ceremony of a spring will last for three days, and his family will gather at home to have dinner together, and the ceremony will be presided over by Ah Quan\'s brother Ryan.
At the age of 27, Ryan was the youngest tribal priest in Ifugao.
He accepted the call out of concern that all other mumbaki had entered old age.
What happens to our culture once they leave? âx80x9d he says.
All this will become Christianity and our culture will disappear.
The brother of Alquane, Ryan Buocan, is one of the youngest tribal priests or mumbaki, Ifugao.
He killed the pig as a sacrifice at the ceremony to ensure that the ancestors welcomed Alquane to the spiritual world.
The morning after Alquane\'s body arrived, Ryan sat around with the old man mumbaki, chanting in the words of Ifugao Tuwali.
There was a bowl of rice wine under his feet and some young chickens.
Ryan held a chicken in his hand and begged his ancestors not to let tragedies like landslides happen again.
He cut the throat of the chicken and let the blood drop into the bowl.
Then he cuts the body of the bird and looks at its liver.
If it is white, it means that the ancestors are comforted and will respond to his prayers.
The White liver did not appear until Ryan provided 16 chickens.
On the day Alquane was buried, about a hundred members of his family climbed up the mountain and watched his brothers open his coffin and tuck his body into the red and black Yves high death blanket, for his last time. (
See how a family in New Orleans mourns a teenager. )
Ryan carried out a chanting ceremony to ensure that none of the souls of the living people would remain in the tomb of alkune.
The members of the clan presented a feast of tempting pork and rice, shouting out the names of hundreds of ancestors, inviting them to dinner, and then taking Alquane to their world.
The final ceremony is called the living soul, lost by the pain of alquane Kumar\'s death, and returned to their bodies so that they could return to their lives.
Just on the Hill of Umalbong, Joy tudo tud\'s body lies in a coffin outside her parents\' house, surrounded by tribal members who came to say goodbye.
Next to her coffin, her brother and uncle are sawing pine boards, stirring cement and measuring steel bars.
They are building a grave so that her soul can live 20 feet away from her home.
An older mourner sang a traditional ngulngul or sad song in front of Joy Tudo\'s coffin.
When the sun went down, a woman of her age was too old to know her age and squatted in front of the coffin of tuduo.
She hid her face in her hands and cried a long, rhythmic song of sadness, which everyone forgot except the very old lyrics.
When her song was filled with sorrow, the crowd fell into a whisper and then was silent.
On last December, rescuers held a final ceremony in Itogon.
Many people rescued dozens of bodies from the landslide.
The priests of the Ibaloi, Kankanai and Kalanguya tribes slaughtered the pigs and led the tribes to pray. âx80x9cThe dau-
One of the elders said that es was a purge because of the storm and all the terrible things happened here.
This is beautiful.
The sun will rise again and we will get along in harmony.
Because of what we are doing now, we will be able to return to our lives.
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