how 3-d printing can jumpstart developing economies
Low demand for Western companies due to automation
Cost labor, so they \"re-support\" production closer to their customers. Even the labor-
Robots can handle intensive sewing work because factories in the United States now use T-shirts.
For those who want to follow the East Asian development \"Tiger\" model from the 20 th century, this is bad news.
They can no longer expect scale and capital by focusing on low returns. Export proficiency
Textile and consumer electronics-oriented industries.
Will they now be forced to return to the old slow development path by exporting natural resources and agricultural products?
Fortunately, what technology takes away and what it can give.
Among them, the automation technology is 3-
D. printing provides an alternative development path for countries willing to invest.
Because it requires much less physical infrastructure than traditional manufacturing, countries can emulate it and compete in industry.
The best way to understand 3-
D. printing, or more general additive manufacturing, begins with traditional manufacturing.
A century ago, Henry Ford developed a factory system that achieved an unprecedented level of efficiency while maintaining quality.
It relies on economies of scale to drive the cost of the car, and ordinary workers can afford it so low.
But these economies need precise coordination on a broad and reliable transportation infrastructure that will take decades to build.
Standardized parts must reach Detroit from a distance
Serve the huge assembly line in a timely manner.
Similarly, the finished car will travel as planned to reach the dispersed customers.
With infrastructure in the United States and other rich countries, the Ford model has expanded to most industries.
Many factories emphasize machines for injection.
Molding or \"molding manufacturing\" is exactly in line with Ford economics: the cost of starting a business is high, but the economies of scale are good.
Additive manufacturing is very different.
Its capital density is low, unlike injection molding, each
Whether the factory produces ten, thousands or millions of pieces, the unit cost of additives can be affordable.
The supply of additives is usually much simpler, mainly the raw materials that enter the printer itself. Additive-
The products made usually involve less parts as well, so the assembly time is also less, as GE has found some jet engines made with additives.
Additives are also much more flexible than traditional factory equipment.
The printer could one day make parts for the bicycle, the next day for the car to make parts, and the next day for the mower to make parts.
This flexibility, and the small-
Scale production, which is why additive proponents initially predicted the economy of \"manufacturers\": producing small-
Batch or custom products from garage or nearby workshop.
In addition to these inherent advantages, additives also become faster and cheaper. 3-
The D printer can now produce many products of thousands of units at a direct cost close to the traditional injection molding and of comparable quality.
Once you take all the indirect savings of logistics into account-there is a shortage of supply and distribution chains and the minimum inventory, the additives become very attractive.
Thanks to these improvements, at least in rich countries, 3-
D. printing is more likely to strengthen large companies than promoting \"manufacturers.
As I am in my new book Pan
After the Industrial Revolution, enterprises will be able to diversify widely and achieve operational synergies that were not previously possible.
We can see the huge \"Pan\"
The leading industrial enterprise in the economy.
In developing countries, however, we are more likely to see a range of small producers meeting local needs.
With additives, advanced commercial infrastructure is not needed in countries.
In the case of weak infrastructure, local production will solve a major problem in the developing world.
Many countries lack the roads and transport facilities needed to supply and distribute goods from large factories.
Using additives, each city and even town can have a printing factory that provides raw materials, and each factory produces a wide variety of goods.
Additional factories can also solve problems through inefficient financial or regulatory infrastructure.
They need much less capital than traditional factories, and often less complex, so they don\'t need a lot of financing or political support.
3D printing has an advantage in developing countries.
Since additive production is completely digital, it is easier for entrepreneurs to monitor and optimize the various steps in the manufacturing process.
With such details, real
Time information, their demand for trusted agencies to approve loans and shipments will be reduced.
Because the additive becomes the cost.
These local factories compete with traditional production while eliminating most of the risks and complexity of distribution, and over time they should replace imports from one country. Politically-
Connected importers can try to turn them off, but flexible 3D printers can easily switch from one product category to another.
Entrepreneurs can learn from M-
Pesa is an online banking system built by Safaricom on its mobile phone network.
The rural population of Kenya was soon M-
Pesa, because it is difficult for them to go to the traditional bank branch of the city.
When the bank in Nairobi noticed this, M-
The Pesa became so popular that the agency could not convince the government to stop it. Just as M-
Kenyans who support pesa (
Most parts of Africa now)
In order to cross the limited financial infrastructure, additives can enable many countries to cross the logistics gap and develop competitive manufacturing industries.
The target is similar to import-
Alternative policies followed by several Latin American countries decades ago.
Policy makers set up tariff barriers to make domestic emerging industries rise without foreign competition.
After all, the United States, Japan and other rich countries built their economies in the early 19 th and 20 th centuries.
Today, however, these policies often lead to cronyism and inefficient industries.
With additives, there is no need for government intervention, so corruption should be reduced and efficiency improved.
Countries can enjoy the benefits of import substitution without most of the drawbacks.
In addition to reducing imports, additives provide a new path for national development, promising a broader base for economic development than the Tiger model.
Countries can build capacity in many sectors rather than focus on specific industries.
When they replace imports with domestic production, they will not be so vulnerable to changes in the global market and will be more motivated to serve their citizens-consumers and producers.
Entrepreneurs need less capital and less political connections to build prosperous businesses in a wide range of areas of the economy.
The plant also needs less power, so entrepreneurs can buy smaller generators to support unreliable local power supplies.
They can also better develop products for local customers.
Industrial software companies such as Autodesk and Dassault Systems are releasing \"creative design\" packages that could become 3-
D. printing, especially in developing countries.
Let\'s say you\'re an entrepreneur who designs products according to the needs of the local market.
You start to develop a universal design for rich countries.
Your customers prefer products that are more robust and feature less, so you tell the computer to adjust the basic design to these requirements, as well as any special requirements for your printer or available ingredients.
The optimization software then generates various options for you to choose from.
Or you can seek a brand new design by specifying your specific goals and constraints to the computer.
With the improvement of creative design software, you don\'t need too much software complexity or even too much creativity-just have a solid understanding of the market.
Starting a business-the key to national development-will become easier.
Therefore, additives can provide vital help to ultimately serve the poorest consumers. -
\"Bottom of the pyramid\"-there are cheap products that can improve the quality of life.
This includes reducing the hassle in terms of supply and distribution as it will be much simpler.
Costs and risks will fall.
More generally, flexible factories can help solve the political and social uncertainties that plague entrepreneurs in many developing countries.
If the government shuts down an industry, you can move your printer to another industry.
It is one thing to establish a printing factory for domestic production.
However, in order to obtain hard currency imports that they cannot replace, developing countries still need to increase their exports.
They\'re going to want to minimize the low-
Raw natural resources.
There are two ways to export: additive raw materials.
Many developing countries are already mining raw materials for entering printer raw materials.
They can process the goods at home and sell them at a higher profit than they do now.
Not the head of competition.
Compared with Western chemical giants such as BASF, they can focus on raw materials suitable for physical and budgetary constraints in emerging markets.
They can even export service aspects of the business to help customers choose the right mix of materials.
In order to achieve this goal, they need to enhance their material science expertise and may need to send more students to study abroad.
Additional software and design services.
Additive is a software.
As developing countries gain expertise in additives and other industrial software, they can try to sell application packages and services, especially those suitable for emerging markets.
After all, India has shown that a developing country can provide competitive software services.
Before developing countries gain expertise in this area, they need some initial help.
A large part of this may come from large multinational companies looking to sell printer equipment and support in the new market.
General Electric, for example, has opened incubation \"garages\" in Nigeria and Nigeria, in 3-
There are \"elephants\" in the businesses generated in Lagos \".
So far, the startup has only printed replacement parts, but has a bigger ambition as it moves down the learning curve and attracts extra money.
Similarly, Stratasys, a large printer manufacturer, has just partnered with the Nettur technical training Foundation to open an additive certification course in India.
There is no need for the government to make direct investments in additives, or even to provide too much in the form of subsidies or tax credits.
Instead, they should encourage additional entrepreneurs by helping to build domestic capacity in new technologies and away from obstacles.
As people gain experience in additives, entrepreneurs will follow the profits and actively expand.
One thing they can certainly do is raise awareness of the technology.
Many people in developing countries are still unclear.
When Prime Minister Modi launched the \"Made in India\" campaign in 2014, the help of additives was far from enough.
However, despite some local progress, the government has done very little recently to raise the visibility of additives.
Not only does Stratasys invest in India, but India has one of GE\'s many state-of-the-art additive factories
Branch factory outside Pune.
It is not easy for developing countries to rely mainly on the domestic market.
But with fewer export opportunities, they have no choice but to look inward.
Once they do, they will most likely find opportunities and unleash the startup spirit on a large scale.
Their future is still bright.